China Tours & Travel Guide, China Travel Agency - CCTS China Travel

China History

Yellow Emperor or Huangdi China's culture is one of the oldest of the world. Legend has it that the three nobles and five emperors (sanhuang wudi 三皇五帝)were the first rules of China. They're also considered as the ancestors of the Chinese people. Of these legendary figures, some taught the Chinese to build houses, others how to grow grain. All of them were idealized figures during a time when mankind was first learning how to survive in the world. The most famous two of these eight semi-deities were the emperors Yan and Huang. Today the Chinese often refer to themselves as Yan Huang Zisun(yan huang zisun 炎黄子孙)-descendants of the Yan and Huang emperors.

Despite a lack of written records in prehistoric China, through rich archaeological finds, it's possible to build a picture what life was like during this period. Fossils of an ancient humanoid dating back 1.7million years were found in Yunnan Province. The Yuanmou fossils are earliest trace of homo sapiens in China. Research has shown that during the prehistoric era there were many patches of human inhabitation throughout China. Unearthed jade and pottery show the civilization of that time was technologically advanced.

Chinese Chronology


XIA (22nd-17th CENTURY BC)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Xia Map
The Xia is the first dynasty recorded in China's history. The dynasty was established by Qi, son of Yu the great, the legendary hero who tamed the Yellow River and controlled its perennial floods. The Erlitou ruins, discovered in Henan Province, illustrate the advanced technology of Xia culture, particularly the relics of an ancient palace and point to the rule of one strong figure.

Top


SHANG (17TH-11TH CENTURY BC)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Oracle Dynasties Shang Map According to historical records, the Xia reigned for 471 years and was superseded by the Shang dynasty. The Shang powerbase was in what are now Henan, Hebei and Shandong provinces. Relics of the Shang dynasty, Yun ruins, were discovered by archaeologists at Xiaotun Village in Henan Province. At the site they unearthed numerous tortoise shells and animal bones inscribed with jiaguwen (jiaguwen 甲骨文), the precursor to modern Chinese characters. These bones, also called oracle bones, were used in divination ceremonies. Basic questions such as choosing auspicious days for important events, what course of action to take and when to begin harvesting, have been found. These bones have given much information about the daily lives of the Shang people.

Dynasties Shang Map A significant amount of bronze ware was also excavated, of which the best know is the rectangular simuwu ding (simuwu dafangding 司母戊大方鼎). Named after the characters carved on it, this ding is 133cm high and weighs 875kg. The simuwu is an impressive piece –the technological skill required to cast such pieces was considerable. Much of the Shang bronze ware is inscribed with characters and decorations. The decorations are usually based on animalistic motifs; one that's particularly common is the taotie (taotie 饕餮), a mythical feral animal.

Top


ZHOU (11TH CENTURY-256BC)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Zhou Map King Zhou (zhouwang 纣王), the last king of Shang dynasty was a despotic tyrant and was overthrown by the Zhou (no relation), a tribe from the west. The Zhou dynasty would become longest ruling dynasty in Chinese history, lasting over 770 years. Initially the Zhou dynasty made its capital in Xi'an, Shananxi Province, but the capital was later moved east to Luoyang in Henan Province. Historians divide the Zhou dynasty into Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou because of this shift.

The king of the Western Zhou distributed his lands as fiefs to the nobles of his clan. These nobles then established vassal states around the Zhou capital, protecting the ruling authority in the center. The Zhou rules created an elaborate system of ceremonial rites with every rite matched to music and dance. The Zhou, as a method of control over their subjects, used these rites by explaining the nature of the Zhou's supremacy and legitimacy to rule. By performing the rituals, the Zhou believed they maintained the "Mandate of Heaven." As long as the ruling elite continued to have this mandate, their authority to rule remained divinely ordained.

Bronze During the rule of King Ping, the capital was moved to Luoyang to escape the threat of the Quanrong, a tribe from the west. This marked the beginning of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. The Eastern Zhou is further subdivided into two periods, the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period.

The power of the Zhou kings was slowly whittled away as powerful nobles began to contend for power and only paid nominal homage the king. Eventually the authority of the Zhou kings only extended to their territories immediately surrounding Louyang. The most influential Zhou dukes became so powerful they were called "The Five Overlords of the Spring and Autumn Period."

Under a state of constant warfare and expansion, the social system of the eastern Zhou changed radically. New technologies made their impact felt - the development of iron tools over stone tools coupled with the harnessing of animal power significantly increased agriculture, trade also grew and the first merchants and trades appeared.

The social classes also became more clearly defined into four groups-the scholar (shi 士), peasant farmer (nong 农), manual laborer (gong 工) and merchant (shang 商). The social system outgrew the simplistic structure that the western Zhou rites had established. What was desperately needed was a written code.

Confucius Enter Confucius, China's most influential teacher and philosopher who lived from 551 to 479 BC, during one of the China's most turbulent periods. This was a transitional time, a period between dynasties when local warlords fought for supremacy-a reoccurring theme in Chinese history. Confucius's theories and teachings would eventually be known simply as Confucianism (ru jia 儒家). His core belief stresses the idea of ren (ren 仁), which is a proximately translated as benevolence, something he felt that society sorely lacked. Confucius traveled extensively, hoping to influence local leaders. On his travels he picked up a large following of students who continued his teaching after his death, thus laying the foundation for the Confucian school of thought, which continues to influence Asia to this day.

Once the Zhou dynasty became nothing but a name, the battle for supremacy intensified. The most powerful to these competing kingdoms are known as the "Seven Overlords." Each competing kingdom sought any advantage they could find over their rivals-this was a dynamic time replete with reforms and stratagems. It was the Qin kingdom that most successfully reformed and adapted itself politically, economically and technologically to the changing times.

Under the Zhou, the ruling elite held a monopoly on power and were able to define what was culture. With the upheavals of Warring States period, a new scholarly class (shi ren 士人) emerged at the cultural forefront. These scholars formed differing schools of thought, each offering their services as advisors in hopes of gaining influence. Out of this developed the "Hundred Schools of thought," which promoted the development of systematic learning.

Top


QIN (221-206BC)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Qin Map King Ying Zheng In 221 BC, King Ying Zheng (ying zheng 嬴政) established the first unified empire in Chinese history, and named himself Shi Huangdi which means the First Emperor. He unified the Chinese script, currency and measurement system. His policies were focused on the exploration and stabilization of the Chinese frontier. One of his projects to protect his domains included the renowned Great Wall, which was built on the foundations of older walls. History remembers Qin Shihuang as a tyrant. Severe laws and penalties were enacted as a social control while supreme power lay with the emperor.

Terracotta Army Another of the emperor's grandiose projects included the Terracotta Army. Excavated in Shaanxi Province, this is part of the emperor's massive mausoleum. Tens of thousands of conscripts were sent to construct his tomb. The dynasty's tyrannical reign lasted a mere 16 years. After the emperor's death widespread rebellions broke out. Eventually a rebel army led by Liu Bang, a former local official, established the Han dynasty.

Top


HAN (206BC-AD220)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Chang's seismograph Like the Zhou dynasty, the Han dynasty is divided into two phrases, the Western Han settled its capital at Xi'an, while the Eastern Han returned it to Luoyang in AD 25. The emperor and his chancellors, having witnessed the sudden collapse of the Qin dynasty, realized that it wasn't feasible to rule a vast kingdom solely on a strict legal system. The monarch relaxed the "legalist system" and allowed the economy, destroyed by war, to recover. Emperor Wudi, one of the early Han emperors, was both ambitious and talented-his reign saw many achievements. By his reign, the Han dynasty was a thriving and powerful empire. The Silk Road One of his most enduring legacies was promoting Confucianism as the official ideology and applying it to the bureaucracy. Ministers were selected based on their knowledge of the Confucian classics, a system that was continued by succeeding dynasties up until the end of the Qing dynasty. He was also able to centralize power, thus removing the threat of powerful nobles rising in rebellion. On the economic side, new trade routes were established between China and Central Asia. Chinese silk exported along these routes, which would become know as the Silk Road (sichou zhilu 丝绸之路).

Under the Eastern Han dynasty, power was further centralized, the economy continued to prosper and cultural achievements reached a peak - this era is considered one of China's golden ages. Paper was also invented during this time. Although samples of paper have been found dating back to the Western Han, it was during the Eastern Han when improved papermaking techniques made it practical to manufacture.With the discovery of paper, the dissemination of information and spread of learning increasing China's cultural influence.

Top


DISUNION (220-589)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Zhuge Liang From the 2nd to the 6th century, China went through a period of disunity. The disintegration began with the displacement of the Eastern Han by three regimes, the Wei, Shu and Wu. One of China's most famous literary epics, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms (sanguo yanyi 三国演义), which was written by Luo Guangzhong during the Ming dynasty, is a fictionalized account of this period.

Numerous petty kingdoms rose and fell during this time. Groups of northern "barbarians"made inroads into China during this time, establishing a series of kingdoms in the vulnerable north. Eventually the Turgut (tuoba 拓跋) tribe of the Xianbei unified northern China and established the Northern Wei dynasty.

Guan Yu Xiao Wendi, an emperor of the northern Wei dynasty, carried out a series of reforms, basing his kingdom along the Chinese bureaucracy. The Confucian bureaucracy would prove to be one of China's most durable institutions-by adopting it, would be rules could gain legitimacy and claim the "Mandate of Heaven," weather they were ethnic Chinese or not. This extended period of northern incursion into Chinese lands saw the intermingling of different ethnic groups and exchange of knowledge.

Temple It was during Han dynasty when Buddhism first came to China from India. Temples and stupas, the architecture that people associate with Chinese Buddhism begun to sprout throughout the land. As a sign of devotion, Buddist cave carvings were begun in northern China. The ones at Yungang and Longmen continue to awe and inspire visitors.

There were mass migrations during this period of upheaval. Some were by those seeking a better future, while others were forced from their homes. Vast numbers of Han Chinese journeyed south, expanding the cultural boundaries of China. They brought new technologies and Han culture as they moved into the periphery and assimilated or displaced local population.

Top


SUI (581-618)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Sui MapCopper Cash The Sui dynasty unified China in AD581 after more than 400 years of disunity, yet it only lasted 38 years. Much was accomplished during this dynasty's short reign-a population census, reformation of the bloated regional administration of the bloated regional administration system and consolidation the southern regions. One of the Sui's most important legacies was building the Grand Canal (da yunhe 大运河), which linked Huangzhou in the south to Beijing in the north. The network of canals aided and enhanced economic and cultural exchange between the south and north and would greatly influence China's development. The downfall of the Sui dynasty came with several military excursions into Korea. These disastrous wars were prohibitively expensive and brought the dynasty to bankruptcy. Peasant rebellions erupted throughout the countryside and Li Yuan, a Sui government minister ended the Sui dynasty when he founded the Tang dynasty.

Top


TANG (618-907)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Tang Map Tang sancai The Tang dynasty was one of China's most prosperous and culturally rich periods.

Under the rule of the second Tang emperor, Taizong, the economy flourished and empire experienced an era of stability. Moreover, he was considered an enlightened ruler for his open style of governing.

Not long after Emperor Taixong, Wu Zetian became the only female empress in China's history. She remembered as a harsh but capable ruler who attracted people of talent to her court.

Tang sancai The Tang dynasty reached its peak under the stewardship of Emperor Xuanzong .His rule heralded a long period of expansion, prosperity and stability, but towards his later years, the dynasty declined and before long regional military commanders seized the opportunity to rebel. The greatest peril the dynasty faced was the devastating rebellion of An Lushan, an ethnic Sogdian, who was the adopted son of Xuanzong's favorite concubine, Yang Guifei.

Many of the emperor's closest advisors blamed Yang Guifei, who was nicknamed "the Fat Concubine," for the decline of the empire. The emperor was so enamored by her charms that ignored state affairs and spend his time with frolicking with his favorite instead. Coming from a poor family, Yang Guifei took this opportunity to enrich herself and her family. Eventually the emperor's officials forced the emperor to order her to commit suicide while fleeing from An Lushan. After this episode, Xuangzong fell into a deep depression and abdicated the throne. Tang poet Song of Everlasting Sorrow(chang hen ge 长恨歌).

The imperial examination system became highly developed under the Tang. While in theory anyone, even a poor peasant, could take part in the examinations, in practice only those rich enough to afford the years of study could advance through the highly competitive system. Poetry also achieved remarkable heights of artistry during the Tang dynasty. Many China's most talented poets, such as Li Bai, Du Fu and Bai Juyi hail from this era.

The Tang dynasty was the largest power in Asia, extending towards Central Asia with its cultural reach playing a key role in the development of Korea and Japan. Numerous envoys and students from foreign countries frequent visited Tang dynasty allowed for frequent cultural exchanges, making the Tang dynasty the most cosmopolitan and open of all China's dynasties.

Imperial Concubine Yang The Tang legal code and Chinese characters were some of China's most important exports to Korea and Japan. Thousands of students from both countries went arrived in China to study and Chinese teachers traveled abroad to spread their wisdom. Buddhism continued to spread throughout China where it became Sinicized, furthering its popularity. An eclectic milieu of religions-Zoroastrianism, Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism, Judaism and Islam were brought into China. Technology also traveled along the Silk Road. Arab trades spread papermaking techniques. Wood block printing was invented during the Tang dynasty, with the Diamond Sutra (jingang jing 金刚经), printed in 868, being the earliest example of a book made using this technique. In late Tang battles, weapons employing gunpowder were used.

As the Tang dynasty reeled from An Lushan's rebellion, which last for over eight years, increased power was given to military officials to deal with the rebels, but in turn they began to acquire power and cave out kingdoms of their own. In AD 907, the Tang dynasty was overthrow. The dynasty once again began anew. The period following the collapse of the Tang was a time of devastation and turbulence. It was during this period of upheaval that China's economic center shifted from the Chinese heartland of the Yellow River valley in the north to the south. The economic migration south, coupled with frequent invasion from the north would create a cultural and psychological divide in the Chinese psyche based along the Yangtze River.

Top


SONG (960-1279)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Song Map Yue Fei In 960, Zhao Kuangyin, a former military official, donned the "Dragon Robe," the symbol of imperial power and established the Northern Song dynasty. The second Northern Song emperor completed the reunification of the country when he destroyed the remaining opposition. The Song emperors, fully aware that the concentration of power among regional governors led to the downfall of the Tang dynasty, deliberately cured the powers of the local officials.

While officials had their powers curb, their numbers increased and they soon became a severe financial burden on the state coffers. This led to a financial crisis that affected the ability of the dynasty to defend itself militarily. To solve this problem, the scholar bureaucrats of the Song dynasty launched a series of political reforms. The policies that were proposed by Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi are the best known, they were wide ranging and, for the era, considered very liberal.

Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival One characteristics of the Northern Song dynasty was its emphasis on academia and its disdain for the military. The Northern Song developed a complicated administration prospered. Due to the inconvenience of coins for such trade, the first Chinese paper currency, called jiaozi (jiaozi 交子), was developed. Porcelain became a very important export and commerce flourished. The detailed painting The Riverside Scene in Pure Brightness (qingming shanhe tu 清明上河图) gives an accurate portrait of bustling city life during this era.

Jun Porcelain The Jurchen tribe from northern China eventually defeated the Northern Song and established the Jin dynasty. The Song court fled to Hangzhou where they established the Southern Song dynasty, which only controlled south China. The regime was run by a powerful coterie of chancellors that was befit with political infighting. This weakened the dynasty until it was finally overtaken by powerful Mongols from the north.

Throughout the 300-year reign of the Song, northern minorities had been a constant threat to its borders. The court was continuously at war or negotiating treaties with these northern groups to secure the Song frontier.

The Song dynasty saw its share of technological breakthroughs. A printer named Bi Sheng invented a method for movable type printing, which made printing far more convenient and accessible. A crude compass, which was first used during the Warring States period, saw continuous development and by the Northern Song would become the predecessor to the modern compass.

Top


YUAN (1206-1368)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Yuan Map Genghis Khan At the beginning of 13th century, Genghis Khan(Chengjisi han 成吉思汗), Tie muzhen (Tiemuzhen 铁木真) in Chinese, united the feuding Mongolian tribes and created the world's most formidable war machine. Sweeping across Eastern Europe and Asia, he created the largest empire the world has even seen. Kublai Khan (hubilie 忽必烈), Genghis' grandson, established the Yuan dynasty after sweeping away the Jin dynasty in the China's north and remnants of the Song to the south. Adopting the Chinese bureaucracy, Kublai Khan officially established the Yuan dynasty in 1271. The Mongolians treated the Han Chinese harshly and rebellions broke out when the dynasty saw the first signs of weakening.

The rule of Yuan dynasty, though harsh, did see significant cultural exchanges due to the large size of their territory. The Yuan rulers were known to readily accept new ideas and foreign experts if they could benefit their empire, regardless of whether those experts wanted to volunteer their services or not. Extensive trade routs were established, it was during the Yuan dynasty when Marco Polo supposedly visited China.

Top


MING (1368-1644)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Ming Map Zhu Yuanzhang Zhu Yuanzhang, originally a poor peasant, founded the Ming dynasty after the fall of the turbulent Yuan dynasty. He established a standardized bureaucracy with a strong central authority. His rule was autocratic, heavily censoring his scholars and limiting cultural freedom. Culture enjoyed a liberal revival when the Yongle emperor ascended the Dragon Throne. The Yongle Canon(yongle dadian 永乐大典), a massive encyclopedia, was compiled during his reign. To reinforce the frontier defenses in the north, he moved his capital from Nanjing to Beijing, which was also his powerbase. His reign saw the Ming's greatest expansion-Zheng He's voyages to Southeast Asia, India and Africa were made during this time.

Trade thrived under the Ming, overseas trade expanded and merchants began to form local trade groups-Anhui merchants in the south and Shanxi merchants in the north. During the later Ming, methods of production akin to those of an early capitalist society emerged, particularly in the production of handicrafts and as new maritime trade routs were established, European nations increasingly sought trade opportunities in China.

Ming Dynasty Porcelain During the late Ming, Western missionaries introduced Christianity and advanced sciences into China. Matteo Ricci, an early Italian Jesuit missionary became highly influential in the Ming court and became a close friend to the emperor.

The closing years of the Ming saw the rise of peasant revolts. The largest of these revolts was led by Li Zicheng. Though he managed to overthrow the Ming, he failed to unify China. Manchu forces from China's northeast had begun to encroach into the Ming's frontier and in 1644 they defeated Li Zicheng's undisciplined forces in Beijing. Following their victory in Beijing and founding the Qing dynasty, they began a slow conquest of the remaining Ming forces.

Top


QING (1616-1911)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynasties Qing Map Emperor Qianlong The Qing dynasty saw its heights of power under three exceptional emperors: Kangxi, Yongzhen and Qianlong. Under their rule, China saw huge advances in literature and military technology. Because the Qing rulers weren't ethnic Han Chinese, they imposed tight controls to maintain their rule. However, the Qing had to work closely with Han Chinese scholars and within the Confucian bureaucratic framework to rule their empire effectively. The Qing emperors expanded the frontiers of their empire and consolidated the borders of what would become modern China.

Qing Dynasty Porcelain Nevertheless, beneath the aura of splendor began a rot that would destroy the framework of the empire. Overpopulation and rampant corruption created instability. Population and economic pressures forced many into poverty. With no future, many close to revolt.

Foreign encroachment from Western powers arrived a time when the Qing dynasty was on the downward trend of the dynastic cycle. In the 19th century, Britain began exporting opium to china to reduce a trade imbalance that had arisen with British demand for tea, silk and porcelain. China's wealth was drained as the nation became addicted to opium. The Qing government's restrictions on the opium trade led to the first Opium War in 1840. The Qing was thus forced to face modernity.

Top


MODERN CHINA (1840-1949)

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Modern China Map Opium War Chinese modern history begins with the 1840 Opium War, which was fought between China and Britain. Before the war, the Qing government had already fought a series battles with Western nations, but it was the Qing defeat during the Opium War that led to the debilitating "Unequal Treaties." Under these treaties, Western nations were able to strip China of its resources, take advantage of its people. In the late 19th century, when capitalism and imperialism fed off each other, Western incursion into China increased. The old Chinese tactic of playing one threat off another was no longer viable, the treaties stipulated a "most favored nation" clause, in effect, whatever concession given to one nation, would be given to all.

The Old Summer Palace As they did in Africa, they imperial powers carved themselves spheres of influence and concession areas there they held extra-territorial powers. In effect, China lost its own sovereignty, for example, Western powers had control to China's customs revenues and could set their own tariffs and taxes for imports.

During this era, China lost control of Macau and Hong Kong, and the Old Summer Palace (yuanmingyuan 圆明园) was burned by Anglo-French force in 1860.

Guantianpei Whilst foreign countries were encroaching into China, endemic government corruption made any efforts to oppose Western encroachment nearly impossible. After the Opium War, the more far-sighted scholars of the ruling class realized that China could strengthen itself by adapting Western science and technology as Japan had done.

Consequently, the scholars actively sought to reform the military and antiquated Confucian education system despite strong opposition from conservative Qing officials. With China's defeat in the Sino-Japanese War of 1895, greater impetus was given to the reformist. In 1898 reformers led by Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao and the near powerless Emperor Guangxu, proposed dramatic reforms to the Qing government by adopting western-styled political institutions that would have turned the Qing into a constitutional monarchy. Since ultimate power was held by empress Dowager Cixi, who was loath to relinquish any of it, the reform movement ended in failure after 100 days.

Empress Dowager Cixi Popular uprisings some of which had egalitarian overtones undermined Qing authority throughout China. Under the leadership of Hong Xiuquan, a failed scholar, the Taiping Rebellion began in 1851. This movement organized and mobilized peasants under a pseudo-Christian banner. 1899 saw the boxers were originally an underground.

Organization based heavily on superstitious beliefs. It quickly developed into an anti-foreign movement with the aim of expelling Westerners from China.

Sun Yat-sen Some reformers felt that drastic change was necessary to revitalize China. Mere reform of the imperial dynasty was no longer possible, that China required the overthrow. The next year, in 1912, the Republic of China was founded with its capital in Nanjing. The government was based on Sun's "Three Principles of People."

Three months after the founding of the Republic of China, China fell into hands of northern warlords led by Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general. Yuan had grandiose plans to crown himself emperor of his own imperial dynasty, but facing universal condemnation, his effort to don the yellow robes of the emperor failed.

Meanwhile, a social revolution was occurring alongside the political revolution. A "New Culture Movement" was launched in1915.Advocates hoped that democracy and scientific progress could transform China's old culture-they believed that advanced technology from the West and the philosophies of the West's Enlightenment could save China from backwardness.

Mao Zedong During this period, writing in the Chinese vernacular became fully developed –the stiff formal writing of classical Chinese was dropped. Supporters of this new literature included Lu Xun, one of China's most influential writers and social commentators whose works include The True Story of Ah Q(a Q zhengzhuan 阿Q正传).

In 1919, the May Fourth Movement, spawned by university students protesting China's weakness at the hands of exploitative warlords and Western imperialism, became one of the modern China's most pivotal moments. It was one of the earliest manifestations of Chinese nationalism. As people searched for the answer to China's woes, some turned to Marxism and in 1921, the Nationalists and Communist Party was established in Shanghai. In 1924, the Nationalists and Communists formally established a united front to combat the rule of the warlords.

Data 1949.10.1 In the spring of 1927, the Nationalist government led by Chiang Kai-shek, formally returned the seat of national power to Nanjing. This was a time of internal turmoil as the Nationalists and the Communists constantly fought pitched battles. Eventually the Nationalists surrounded the Communist base in the Jiangxi Soviet. In a daring breakout, Communists were forced to embark on a strategic retreat from 1934 to 1936, the epic Long March. The Communists marched 25,000 li ( a li is equal to a half kilometer) through swamps and mountains to Yan'an while all the way being pursued by the Nationalists.

In 1931, the Imperial Japanese Army launched a massive invasion of northeast China. In 1937, the Japanese began a general invasion of northeast China. In 1937, the Japanese began a general invasion and all-out war broke out. Faced with a Japanese onslaught, the Nationalists and Communists once again formed a united front against a common enemy. After Japan's defeat in the Second World War, civil war broke out between the Nationalists and Communists. In 1949, the Nationalists were defeated and retreated from the mainland to Taiwan.

Top


Tranfer Related Links

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

CCTS China Travel Forum CCTS China Travel Forum - China Guide

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Close Window Close Window

The safer, easier way to pay  Bookmark and Share
Internet Content Provider ICP: 06014927